The Archive of the Romanian Revolution of December 1989

A Catch-22 December 1989, Groundhog-Day Production. Presenting the Personal Research & Scholarship of Richard Andrew Hall, Ph.D.

Procesul de la Timisoara (IV): Martorii Adrian Kali, Ioan Musca, Traian Orban, si Alexandru Koos

Posted by romanianrevolutionofdecember1989 on October 2, 2011

[as always, purely personal views based on purely personal research and publications over the past two decades]

Thanks to Miodrag Milin (and ASOCIAŢIA MEMORIALUL REVOLUŢIEI 16-22 DECEMBRIE 1989, TIMIŞOARA), the tapes of the Timisoara trials of 1990-1991 have been transcribed and made available to the public.  These transcripts are highly valuable for the researcher of the December 1989 Romanian Revolution.  To my knowledge, much of this information has never made it into the public domain, and much of the most important information has definitely not.

When reading the courtroom testimony below, keep in mind here the unambiguous rejection by military prosecutor Dan Voinea of the use of dum-dum bullets in December 1989:

Dan Voinea:  There were no victims (people who were shot) from either vidia bullets or dum-dum bullets.  During the entire period of the events war munitions were used, normal munitions that were found at the time in the arsenal of the Interior Ministry and the Defense Ministry.  The confusion and false information were the product of the fact that different caliber weapons were used, and therefore, the resulting sound was perceived differently. (General Dan Voinea, interview by Romulus Cristea, “Toti alergau dupa un inamic invizibil,” Romania Libera, 22 December 2005, online edition.)

[Are these court documents available at the website of the IICCMER?  Or the website of Asociatia 21 decembrie 1989?  No!  Thankfully, however, they are available on this site and ].  The following are from Volumes IV and V.]

Adrian Kali’s story has been covered elsewhere since:  “Deşi este proprietarul celei mai numeroase armate paşnice din România, Adrian Kali a fost împuşcat de două ori. Întâi cu un glonte exploziv, aşa-numitele dum-dum, apoi cu un glonte de 7,62. Asta s-a întâmplat în timpul Revoluţiei din 1989, în 17 decembrie, pe Podul Decebal.” .

Here you can listen to him recount his own experiences in an interview on EuropaFM

17 Decembrie 1989, gloante explozive (dum-dum), Timisoara


Ioan Musca: “Eu asa zic, ca la cele trei focuri.  Fiindca doua dintre ele au fost si explozive.  Si acuma am film aicia, daca vreti sa-l vedeti…Se vad schijele care-s ramas in picior.  Doua le-au scos acolo, al treilea nu l-au mai putut scoate.”


Mariana Rodica Farcau

La podul Decebal, intre pod si parc, erau militari in uniforma verde. Printre ei si unii mai in virsta, imbracati civil. In spate se vedea si un camion. Cind ne-am aproiat de ei, strigind “Armata e cu noi!” si alte lozinci, ne-am pomenit cu o ploaie de gloante (fara somatie). In momentul acela am simtit o durere puternica si am cazut. Fusesem atinsa de doua gloante (unul exploziv).

Like Adrian Kali and Ioan Musca (above), Mariana Farcau had wounds from two types of bullets–suggesting two sets of shooters, but also suggesting that doctors were capable of discerning the difference of between normal ammunition and explosive ammunition.

17 Decembrie 1989, glont exploziv (i.e. dum-dum ), Timisoara (Podul Decebal)


One of the two bullets with which Traian Orban was wounded was removed in Austria where doctors did not confirm that it was a dum-dum bullet (the other bullet had been removed in Timisoara)

Alexandru Koos who was wounded on the night of 22-23 December 1989 also was treated in Austria however, where both doctors and experts confirmed that the bullet in question was a dum-dum bullet. also contains elements of the above discussion.

Foreign doctors who came to Romania to treat the wounded as well as those who treated the wounded in their home countries confirmed the use of dum-dum bullets during the December 1989 bloodshed.

Doctors and Dum-Dum Bullets in Romania in December 1989 (I): Dr. Manuel Burzaco (Médecins Sans Frontières)

Doctors and Dum-Dum Bullets in Romania in December 1989 (II): Trimisi in strainatate (Italia, Franta, Austria, Anglia, si Germania) pentru tratament


2 Responses to “Procesul de la Timisoara (IV): Martorii Adrian Kali, Ioan Musca, Traian Orban, si Alexandru Koos”

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